The U.S. President’s speech to the U.N. General Assembly today sought to draw support from the example of a predecessor, Harry S Truman, who encouraged the founding in 1945 of the United Nations Organization. But on close comparison – that is, analysis more searching than that in a just-published, facile Time account – today’s speech is a far cry from the global vision of Truman era.

“The United Nations represents the idea of a universal morality, superior to the interests of individual nations. Its foundation does not rest upon power or privilege; it rests upon faith. They rest upon the faith of men in human values – upon the belief that men in every land hold the same high ideals and strive toward the same goals for peace and justice.”

So said Truman in 1950 to the General Assembly in New York, delivering the traditional head-of-state speech on behalf of his country.

In the aftermath of World War II – a war that he had brought to a close following the death-in-office of President Franklin D. Roosevelt – Truman pushed for establishment of an international organization that would bring collective security to a world that, then as now, was troubled. His United States hosted the diplomatic conference at which the Charter of the United Nations was adopted on June 26, 1945. That Charter lays out a plan for international regulation of the use of military force – a plan established by, to quote the Charter’s very first words:

“We the peoples of the United Nations determine to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war…”

U.S. President Harry S Truman addresses 1945 San Francisco Conference to draft the Charter of the United Nations. (credit)

In April 1945, fewer than two weeks after VJ Day, Truman had opened that San Francisco Conference with a speech that placed collective security over the whims of any single country. To quote President Truman:

“The essence of our problem here is to provide sensible machinery for the settlement of disputes among nations. Without this, peace cannot exist. We can no longer permit any nation, or group of nations, to attempt to settle their arguments with bombs and bayonets.”

Five years later, his 1950 address to the General Assembly acknowledged:

“Governments may sometimes falter in their support of the United Nations, but the peoples of the world do not falter.”

By way of example, Truman in 1950 cited the “widespread,” “overwhelming,” and collective efforts of the United Nations to repel the then-recent invasion of South Korea. “In uniting to crush the aggressors in Korea” – note that Truman spoke of crushing aggressors, and not of destroying an entire country – he maintained that countries had “proved that the charter is a living instrument backed by the material and moral strength of members, large and small.”

In the U.S. head of state’s General Assembly speech today, the world heard a very different address, by a very different holder of the office of the U.S. President. Today’s speech referred to Truman and Truman-era policies like the Marshall Plan as purveyors of “three beautiful pillars,” of “sovereignty, security and prosperity.”

It must, however, be noted that no reference to sovereignty or prosperity may be found in the two pivotal Truman speeches. Not one of the three quoted words appears in the speech by which Secretary of State George Marshall announced his eponymous plan, either. Security does receive mention in Truman’s April 1945 speech, but in a global, collective, and cooperative, and not an individual nation-state, sense, as here:

“With firm faith in our hearts, to sustain us along the hard road to victory, we will find our way to a secure peace, for the ultimate benefit of all humanity.”

Truman’s envisagement of “peace, for the ultimate benefit of all humanity” exists worlds away from the enshrinement in today’s speech of individual state sovereignty.

YPRES, Belgium – Beautiful vistas and bright sunlight cannot blind the visitor to the pain of this place.

This place is Flanders Fields, the name given to the part of west Belgium, close to the French border, that saw intense battles and horrendous casualties during World War I. This town – Ypres in French and Ieper in Flemish, but called “Wipers” by British WWI soldiers – played a central role. So too nearby Passchendaele/Passendale. Both towns were leveled, and like many in the region, were rebuilt in the old manner after the war ended.

During the war, upwards of half a million persons died in this area alone.

Our visit to Flanders Fields occurred on the 4th of July. Memories linger, and were sparked again by today’s commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the 1st large-scale use, in Ypres, of chemical weapons; mustard gas, to be precise. It was the 3d compound to be attempted, after chlorine and phosgene proved less reliable as lethal weapons, according to our tour guide, Raoul Saracen, a retired history teacher. Initial efforts to fight back against chemicals also were crude: before the development and widespread distribution of gas masks, Canadian troops resorted to breathing through kerchiefs soaked in ammonia-rich urine.

The cruelty of chemical warfare did not stop its use. Recording other places where chemicals have been used was a signpost in Langemark, the cemetery where German soldiers (including several with whom I share a surname) are buried. Tokyo, Japan, Halabja, Iraq, and Ghouta, Syria, receive mention, though more recent gassing sites in that last country have yet to be added.

The thousands of headstones in the many Flanders Fields cemeteries of course give pause. So too the cramped trenches, still on display at Sanctuary Wood Museum.

Yet it was a different site that stole my breath – the “dressing station,” a kind of field hospital, at Essex Farm Cemetery. The station’s cement-bunker cells were small, dark, and saddening, a truly concrete reminder of the scourge of war.


Pleased to have contributed to reporter Sean Illing’s Vox roundups of academic commentary on yesterday’s testimony by former FBI Director James B. Comey before the U.S. Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (photo credit)

Illing 1st asked whether, in “Comey’s introductory remarks or in his exchanges with senators,” the witness made “a case that President Trump attempted to obstruct justice.” My response here.

Next, he asked about a statement released by the President’s personal lawyer, which said that Comey had engaged in “unauthorized disclosure of privileged information.” My response, which treated the constitutional doctrine of executive privilege, here.

Do Your Part,” Allied posters proclaimed during World War II. Women were urged to join the U.S. Army Auxiliary to work at defense plants, families were pressed to keep farms producing, and all were advised to keep their mouths shut. This coming-together defeated Axis enemies and gave rise to unprecedented postwar intergovernmental cooperation.

That 72-year-old global infrastructure is under threat. Last week saw fractious meetings at NATO headquarters (where I’m due to bring students later this month) and Taormina (just 75 miles north of the Siracusa summer school where I was then teaching). Today it’s the President’s invocation of the provision permitting U.S. withdrawal, in about 4 years, from the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change, to which 195 – nearly all – the countries in the world have agreed.

The news spurs reflection on the very small part I played in the development of the Paris Agreement.

As with most international accords, this one did not happen on the spur of the moment. Rather, countries had engaged in consultations and negotiations for years before the summit. France was especially active, eager to accomplish something significant in October-November 2015, when it would host COP21, the 21st Conference of the Parties to the 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change.

Thus in June 2015 I joined French and American colleagues at a symposium entitled “Le Changement climatique, miroir de la globalisation (Climate Change, Mirror of Globalization),” a pre-summit preparatory meeting whose cosponsors included the Collège de France and Fondation Charles Léopold Mayer pour le Progrès de l’Homme. Our interventions aided thinking about the impending summit.

My own contribution, “Le changement climatique et la sécurité humaine,” reprised a chapter published in Regards croisés sur l’internationalisation du droit : France-États-Unis (Mireille Delmas-Marty & Stephen Breyer eds., 2009). As indicated in the English version, “Climate Change and Human Security,” the essay demonstrated that litigation would not proved a fruitful method for combatting climate change. It thus advocated a human security approach, one drawn from U.S. legal traditions like the 1941 Four Freedoms speech of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the 1945 Statement of Essential Human Rights of the American Law Institute.

The essay concludes:

“Emphasis on state duty carries with it an assumption that legislative and executive officials will assume their obligation to avoid harm from occurring. Such officials may not assume, as seems the wont of some who operate under a litigation model, that they may act as they wish unless and until a court steps in to order some belated and imperfect sanction for the wrongs they have committed. A state that endeavors to achieve human security, moreover, is likely to fashion comprehensive, before-the-fact remedies. That is preferable even in isolated cases; in other words, we would rather have an agent of the state eschewed torture than have to compensate a victim after she has suffered state torture. This comprehensive, before-the-fact framework is even more preferable with regard to human insecurities that have communitywide, even planetary consequences – to name one, the threat to human security posed by climate change.”

Theories like these undergird the agreement reached in fall 2015. They yet may maintain a firm hold in these next 4 years.

“The defendant before you is an innocent man.” That claim, rarely heard in a court of appeals and still more rarely sustained, compels the attention of the judge. All our provisions for appeal, our careful scrutiny of the record, our hearing of argument, our conferencing and analysis are designed to prevent just such a perversion of the criminal process as the infliction of punishment upon an innocent person. It is not our way to imprison a defendant because we do not like him or find his conduct worthy of disapproval. If he is to be stamped a felon by federal law, he must have committed a federal crime. If he has not, he is innocent. Such Marsh contends he is. Such Marsh should be found to be.

So wrote Judge John T. Noonan Jr., who died Monday at age 90. (photo credit) It appeared in United States v. Marsh, a 1994 decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit.

For all but a very few, Marsh was a mine-run case. And yet, I personally have never forgotten the quoted passage. For I was the Assistant Federal Public Defender who, late on the morning of November 3, 1993, stood before 3 judges – all of them slouched in their chairs, stern-faced and not a little tired after hearing a long string of short oral arguments – and began the scant 10 minutes allotted for her client’s quixotic appeal with these words:

“The defendant before you is an innocent man.”

It is a bold claim for any defense lawyer to make, in any case. It was especially bold in this case, which involved same-sex phone-sex.

Years earlier, my then-quite-young-and-poor client had met a not-poor, then-in-the-prime-of-his-life man. For decades they were often apart yet still in touch, often communicating by phone. By the early 1990s the elder man was quite elderly. His grown daughter discovered the still-continuing phone calls, and the consequent transfers of her father’s funds. The discovery spurred shock, then outrage, and then a federal complaint, trial, and conviction.

The trial transcript indicates that many in the courtroom found the underlying conduct and calls (the sexual content of which was discussed in graphic detail) distasteful, perhaps even repulsive. Perhaps it was for that reason that the prosecutor forgot to elicit any evidence of an essential element of this charged violation of the Hobbs Act; in this extortion case, to be precise, the prosecutor forgot to elicit even a scintilla of testimony to the effect that the alleged victim paid money out of fear.

It was my position that this utter failure to prove a material element of the offense compelled reversal of the conviction:

“The defendant before you is an innocent man.”

On hearing these words, 2 on the panel looked annoyed – no surprise given the overall tone of the case. But the 3d sat up straight and began asking questions. It was Judge Noonan, a Berkeley Law professor and noted scholar of law and Catholicism, whom President Ronald Reagan had appointed to the 9th Circuit in 1985. Noonan’s questions and my answers eventually produced the passage quoted above, published in dissent from the panel majority’s decision to sustain the conviction.

Anyone who has practiced federal criminal defense will understand this as a kind of victory, despite the larger loss of the appeal.

I met Judge Noonan in person not long after, in a lunch arranged by my supervisor, then-Federal Public Defender Barry Portman, another giant in the San Francisco federal courthouse. Only then did I learn that the question of when – even whether – words alone can provide the basis for criminal punishment was an issue with which the judge long had grappled. His thoughts gelled in one of his several significant writings, Bribes: The Intellectual History of a Moral Idea (1987). (Other works inclined toward legal history and philosophy, among them his masterful book-length case study, The Antelope (1990).) The judge was erudite, a gentleman – even courtly – and I was honored to have met him.

When I entered academia, Marsh joined the repertoire of practice stories I deployed to engage my Criminal Law classes. The experience stayed with me – and long after the decision, I learned that this lingering effect was not mine alone. A student alerted me to the following passage in a symposium piece, “The Foxboro Referee, the Boston Judge, the County Juror, and the Conscience of the Court,” 2003 U. Ill. L. Rev. 1403:

Call it the heart or the spirit or the inner person, there are in each of us perceptions and convictions that cannot be reduced to rules external to us. It is that internal core of the judge that a good advocate seeks to reach. “I represent an innocent man,” declared Diane Marie Amann in a criminal appeal I heard argued six years ago. I had never before heard such a claim. It spoke to something in me more tellingly than a reference to due process of law would have done. It set in motion thought and action …

The author, of course, was Noonan, discussing judges’ professional responsibility. The passage revealed that for him as for me, Marsh had been no mine-run case. It revealed that Judge Noonan still pondered my unexpected yet accurate protestation of my client’s innocence and, indeed, the injustice of my client’s conviction. It revealed that he still pondered his own “thought and action”: his lone vote against conviction, without concern about what mid-1990s America might think of the underlying conduct. It revealed a quintessential judge, whom we will miss.

My thanks to all who came here to Athens, Georgia, earlier this month to celebrate IntLawGrrls blog, which I founded a decade before, on March 3, 2007. I saw old friends and made new ones, and reveled in watching networks form.

I’m particularly proud that our conference operated to assist many participants who are still building their careers. They included several of whom I’m especially proud:

► J.D. or LL.M. candidates, among them my students: Victoria Barker, new Editor-in-Chief of our Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law; Chanel Chauvet, a Dean Rusk International Law Center Student Ambassador set to intern this summer in the global legal department of CARE International; LL.M. candidate Urvashi Jain; and Hannah Williams, President of Georgia Law’s International Law Society;

► Ph.D. candidates, including my former Georgia Law student Kaitlin Ball, now studying in the at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom; and

► Advocates like my former California-Davis students Monica Feltz, Executive Director, International Justice Project, Newark, New Jersey, and Kathleen A. Doty, Director of Global Practice Preparation at Georgia Law’s Dean Rusk International Law Center, as well as an M.A. Candidate in Political Science & International Affairs at our university’s School of Public & International Affairs.

Deep thanks too to Işıl Aral, Ph.D. student at England’s University of Manchester and co-founder there of the Women in International Law Network. She videotaped segments of our conference, including the start of my own remarks at our lunch-hour plenary. Reposted above and at Exchange of Notes and IntLawGrrls blogs, the video also includes remarks by Indiana-Indianapolis Law Associate Dean Karen E. Bravo, American Society of International Law President Lucinda A. Low, Temple Law Professor Jaya Ramji-Nogales, and Stanford Visiting Law Professor Beth Van Schaack.


Delighted to announce that about a hundred scholars and practitioners in international law and related fields will participate in IntLawGrrls! 10th Birthday Conference, to be hosted by the Dean Rusk International Law Center, University of Georgia School of Law, on March 2 and 3, 2017.

The call for papers issued last autumn produced a trove of proposals from around the world – from women, and a few men, at all stages of their careers. That’s allowed us to build a research forum comprising 16 breakout panels, each with 5 presenters and a moderator. As detailed below, participants will be coming here to Athens from all over North America and Europe, and from as far away as Australia, Hong Kong, Japan, and Kosovo. (Although panels are full, attendance registration is available here.)

Additional highlights will include the March 2 screening of 500 Years, a Sundance-selected Guatemala documentary by IntLawGrrls contributor Pamela Yates, as well as a plenary on Strategies to Promote Women’s Participation in Shaping International Law and Policy amid the Global Emergence of Antiglobalism. Joining in the plenary conversation will be jurist Patricia A. Wald, American Society of International Law President Lucinda A. Low, Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations President Mary L. Dudziak, and former White House official Catherine Powell, as well as two of IntLawGrrls’ original editors,  Jaya Ramji-Nogales and moderator Beth Van Schaack.

Making all this possible are the many cosponsors who’ve helped support various events, or partial travel grants aiding participation by several very-early-career attendees: IntLawGrrls, of course, plus the University of Georgia School of Law (its Dean Rusk International Law Center, Georgia Women in Law Lead initiative, International Law Society, and Women Law Students Association), the University of Georgia (its Willson Center for Humanities & the Arts and Institute of Native American Studies), the Planethood Foundation, the American Society of International Law and its Women in International Law Interest Group, and a few who wish to remain anonymous.

We look forward to celebrating the blog’s birthday – it was launched exactly a decade ago, on March 3, 2007 – with old and new colleagues alike.

IntLawGrrls! 10th Birthday Conference

Film: Thursday, March 2, 2017
  7 p.m. Ciné, 234 West Hancock Avenue, Athens

ypA.1. Screening of “500 Years” and Discussion with Filmmakers
Pamela Yates, Co-founder and Creative Director, Skylight Pictures, Brooklyn, New York
Paco de Onís, Executive Director, Skylight Pictures, Brooklyn, New Yorkop
nraModerator: Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Distinguished Professor of Law, University of California Hastings College of the Law, San Francisco

Research Forum: Friday, March 3, 2017
University of Georgia School of Law, Athens

B. 8:45-10:15 a.m.

B.2. The Practice of International Criminal Law
wcmMadeline Cameron Wardleworth, Solicitor, King & Wood Mallesons, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, Digital Allies: Is Female Access to International Justice Being Improved via Technology and Innovation?
fm Megan A. Fairlie, Associate Professor of Law, Florida International University College of Law, Miami, Recorded Testimony and Fair Trial Concerns in International Criminal Justicelb
Beth S. Lyons, Defense Counsel, International Criminal Court and International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, New Jersey, Treatment of the ICTR Acquitted: The “Achilles Heel” of International Criminal Justice
mcdy Yvonne McDermott, Senior Lecturer in Law, School of Law, Bangor University, Wales, Borrowed Truths: Expert Evidence and Authority in International Criminal Trialscj
► Moderator: Jason A. Cade, Assistant Professor of Law and Director of the Community Health Law Partnership Clinic, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens

B.3. Human Rights
Ali Aghahosseini Dehaghani, Ph.D. Candidate in Public International Law, University of Nantes, France, International Law-Making by International Judicial Bodies: Towards a More Effective Role for Women’s Participation
bkKaren E. Bravo, Associate Dean for Graduate Studies & International Affairs and Professor of Law, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, Indianapolis, Interrogating Everyperson’s Roles in Today’s Slaveries
btTequila J. Brooks, Attorney and International Employment Policy Specialist, Washington, D.C., Sexism and Gender Stereotypes in International Guest Worker Programs: An Analysis of Two 2016 Petitions under the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation
ddDeepa Das Acevedo, Sharswood Fellow, University of Pennsylvania Law School, Philadelphia, God’s Homes, Men’s Courts, Women’s Rights
juUrvashi Jain, LL.M. Candidate, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, Educational Rights of the Transgender Children in India
Natalie W. Romeri-Lewis, Senior Project Associate, The WomanStats romeriProject, Provo, Utah, and Adjunct Professor, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, International and Comparative Domestic Violence Law: A 176-Country Study of Banning, Ignoring, and Sustaining Domestic Violence
Moderator: Jaya Ramji-Nogales, I. Herman Stern Professor of Law and Co-Director of the Institute for International Law and Public Policy, Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphia

B.4. Women’s Leadership in Legal Institutions
djJosephine J. Dawuni, Assistant Professor of Political Science and founding Executive Director of the Institute for African Women in Law, Howard University, Washington, D.C., Matri-legal Feminism, International Law and the African Woman Judge
gnNienke Grossman, Associate Professor of Law, University of Baltimore School of Law, Maryland, Taking Stock of Women in International Legal Academia
gemMaryann E. Gallagher, Lecturer, Department of International Affairs, School of Public & International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens, Engendering Justice: Women Prosecutors in International Courts
mcClaudia Martin, Professional Lecturer in Residence and Co-Director of the Academy on Human Rights and Humanitarian Law, American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C., Article 8 of the Convention to Eliminate All Forms of Discrimination against Women: A Stepping Stone in Ensuring Gender Parity in International Organs and Tribunals
Samantha McLane, Budget and Operations Associate Director, Office of the rlChief Strategy Officer, Planned Parenthood Federation of America, New York, New York, Breaking the Federal Judiciary Glass Ceiling: How Affirmative Action Can Accelerate Gender Parity in the Mexican Supreme Court
Moderator: Lori A. Ringhand, Associate Dean for Academic Affairs and J. Alton Hosch Professor of Law, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens

B.5. Issues in International Criminal Justice
ddvDieneke de Vos, Ph.D. Candidate in International Criminal Law and Gender, European University Institute, Florence, Italy, Complementarity’s Gender Deficits – Analyzing Interactions Between the ICC and National Accountability Processes for Sexual Violence Crimes
ecChristie J. Edwards, Director, International Humanitarian Law, American Red Cross, Washington, D.C., Forced Contraception as a Means of Torture
mcathCatherine Moore, Coordinator of International Law Programs, University of Baltimore School of Law, Maryland, The Rise of “Effective” Head of State Immunity through Negative Norm Diffusion: The Case of Al-Bashir and South Africa
Jenica Marie Moore, Ph.D. Candidate in International Relations, School of Public & International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens, The Search for Justice and Clarity in International Crimes: An Argument for a Change in How We Understand and Prosecute Mass Violence
tjJennifer Trahan, Clinical Associate Professor, The Center for Global Affairs, New York University School of Professional Studies, New York, Highlights of the ICC Crime of Aggression and Its Relationship to Humanitarian Intervention
icc2013_autocorrectModerator: Diane Marie Amann, Associate Dean for International Programs & Strategic Initiatives and Emily & Ernest Woodruff Chair in International Law, Dean Rusk International Law Center, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, and International Criminal Court Prosecutor’s Special Adviser on Children in & affected by Armed Conflict

C. 10:30 a.m.-12 noon

C.6. International and Transnational Criminal Justice
Maya Ezgi Avci, J.S.D. Candidate, IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law, Illinois, Female Recruiters: Victims or Perpetrators?dy
Yvonne M. Dutton, Associate Professor of Law, Dean’s Fellow and Grimes Fellow, Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law, Indianapolis, Bridging the Legitimacy Divide: The International Criminal Court’s Public Perception Challengefmon
Monica Feltz, Executive Director, International Justice Project, Newark, New Jersey, Victim Participation at the ICC: the Darfur Situation
gengjJing Geng, Visiting Researcher, Michigan Law School, and Ph.D. Candidate in Law, Católica Global School of Law, Lisbon, Portugal, Theorizing the Victim-Agent: A Response to the “Ideal” Victim of Traffickingsm
Milena Sterio, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Academic Enrichment, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University, Ohio, wlThe Karadzic Genocide Conviction: Inferences, Knowledge and Intent
Moderator: Lesley Wexler, Professor of Law, University of Illinois College of Law, Champaign

C.7. Human Rights and Accountability across Levels and Regions
fsStephanie Farrior, Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Applied Human Rights, Vermont Law School, Vermont, Extraterritorial Treaty Obligations: Human Rights and the Environment
karhoffKaren Hoffman, On-the-Ground Legal Advocate, Aldea–The People’s Justice Center, Reading, Pennsylvania, Redress for “Some Folks”: Pursuing Justice for Victims of Torture through Traditional Grounds of Jurisdiction
kaAnna Karapetyan, Legal Intern, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, The Hague, the Netherlands, A Recurring Phenomenon: The Prohibition of Torture and the Question of Judicial Corporal Punishment under International Human Rights Law
Hannah Williams, J.D. Candidate, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, The International Right of Syrian Refugee Children to an Education: Turkey’s Legal Responsibility
ohModerator: Hari M. Osofsky, Robins Kaplan Professor, Faculty Director of the Energy Transition Lab, and Director of the Joint Degree Program in Law, Science & Technology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis

C.8. Feminism/Theories
bdDafina Buçaj, Assistant Lecturer in International Law, Faculty of Law, University of Prishtina, Kosovo, Failure of International Law in Times of Crises: Have Women Played a Better Role in Being Problem-Solvers?hm
Mary Hansel, Deputy Director, International Human Rights Clinic, Loyola Law School, Los Angeles, California, From the Crisis Model to an International Law of the Everydayhg
Gina Heathcote, Senior Lecturer in Gender Studies & International Law and Chair of the Centre for Gender Studies, SOAS, University of London, England, Feminist Dialogues on International Lawsb
Bérénice K. Schramm, Postdoctoral Fellow, Centre for Gender Studies, SOAS, University of London, London, England, A Future Case (of) Study(ies): Francophone Feminist Approaches to International Lawths
Sabrina Tremblay-Huet, Doctoral Candidate in Law, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada, Law and literature as a nnfeminist method to explore scarcities of legalization in international law: The example of the law on tourism
Moderator: Naomi Norberg, Translator and Editor, Northmountain Translations, Pouilly sur Loire, France

C.9. Transnational Crime and Corporate Accountability
acornElizabeth Acorn, Ph.D. Candidate in Government, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, The National Enforcement of International Anti-Foreign Bribery Standards: Multilateralizing the American Model
lsSydney Lang, B.C.L./LL.B. Candidate, McGill University, Faculty of Law, Montréal, Québec, Canada, Colonial Violence and Corporate Illusions in the Canadian Mining Industry: Investigating Access to Justice and Legal Accountability in Canada
Lisa J. Laplante, Associate Professor, New England Law School, Boston, Massachusetts, Privatizing Human Rights Enforcement through Company Level Grievance Mechanisms
potTemitayo O. Peters, Associate, Palomar Law Group, Escondido, California, A Proposal: Using Mediation to Hold Transnational Corporations Accountable for Human Rights Violations
Reem Radhi, Ph.D. Candidate in Law, Durham Law School, England, Restorative Justice for Corporate Criminal Liability and Sentencing in the US and the UKbjosh
► Moderator: Joshua Barkan, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens

D. 12:15-1:45 p.m. Plenary Panel

D.10. Strategies to Promote Women’s Participation in Shaping International Law and Policy amid the Global Emergence of Antiglobalism
dmlMary L. Dudziak, Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Law, at llEmory University School of Law, Atlanta, Georgia, and President of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations
Lucinda A. Low, Partner at Steptoe & Johnson LLP and President of the American Society of International Law, Washington, D.C.
powellCatherine Powell, Associate Professor of Law at Fordham Law School in New York, Adjunct Senior Fellow on Women and Foreign Policy at the Council on Foreign Relations, and former State Department and White House official
?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Jaya Ramji-Nogales, I. Herman Stern Professor of Law and Co-Director of the Institute for International Law and Public Policy, Temple University Beasley School of Law, Philadelphiawaldp
Patricia M. Wald, former Judge on the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and Chief Judge of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and former member of the U.S. Privacy and Civil Liberties Oversight Boardvsb
Moderator: Beth Van Schaack, Visiting Scholar, Center for International Security & Cooperation, Stanford University, California, and former Deputy to the Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues, Office of Global Criminal Justice, U.S. Department of State

E. 2-3:30 p.m.

E.11. Culture and Transitional Justice Mechanisms
kmbKaitlin M. Ball, Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Political Science & International Studies, University of Cambridge, England, Negotiable Space: Policing of Youth in Post-Conflict Northern Irelandbv
Victoria Barker, J.D. Candidate, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, Cultural Rights in Canada’s Residential Schools: 1939-2000
baylis_elenaElena Baylis, Associate Professor, University of Pittsburgh School of Law, joint appointment with the university’s Graduate School of Public & International Affairs, Pennsylvania, Transnational Models and Rule of Law Initiativesfries
Mirka Fries, International Criminal Law Specialist, Berlin, Germany, Prosecuting Former Child Soldiers under International Criminal Law: Towards a System of kanjiJust Punishment
Azeezah Kanji, Director of Programming, Noor Cultural Centre, Toronto, Canada, The Al Mahdi Case at the International Criminal Court: Cultural oneill_peter_01_thumbProperty and Common Humanity in the “War on Terror”
Moderator: Peter D. O’Neill, Assistant Professor, Department of Comparative Literature, University of Georgia, Athens

E.12. International Economic Law and Dispute Settlement
Nguyet Thi Anh Le, Fulbright Scholar, American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C., The Jurisprudence of International Investment Arbitration Awards on State-Owned Enterprise (SOE): The Quest for the SOE Law Revisions in Developing Countries?mcm
Megan E. McCloskey, Ph.D. Candidate in Law, University of Washington School of Law, Seattle, International Investment Law and Gender Equality: The Case for Gender-Sensitive Policy-Making
pmonaMona Pinchis, Visiting Researcher, Stanford Law School, California, and Ph.D. Candidate in Law at King’s College London, England, Fair and Equitable Treatment in the Charter for the International Trade Organization
rhHayley Roberts, Coleg Cymraeg Cenedlaethol Lecturer in Law, School of Law, Bangor University, Wales, The South China Sea Arbitration: The Role of Negotiations in UNCLOS Dispute Settlement
Chie Sato, Associate Professor, School of Law, Meiji University, Tokyo, Japan, The Rule Making for the Protection of Marine Environment Based on the Law of the Sea
► Moderator: Harlan G. Cohen, Gabriel M. Wilner/UGA Foundation Professor in International Law, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens

E.13. Postwar/Cold War Policies and Legacies
aralIşıl Aral, Ph.D. Candidate in Public International Law, University of Manchester, England, The Myth of the Cold War: Is 1991 Really a Turning Point for the Neutrality of International Law Regarding Democratic Governance?
dkKathleen A. Doty, Director of Global Practice Preparation, Dean Rusk International Law Center, University of Georgia School of Law, and M.A. Candidate in Political Science & International Affairs, School of Public & International Affairs, University of nraGeorgia, Athens, Normalization of U.S.-Cuba Relations
Naomi Roht-Arriaza, Distinguished Professor of Law, University of California Hastings College of the Law, San smithkristinFrancisco, Safeguarding Development: Environment, Gender Empowerment and Human Rights Protections in U.S. Foreign Aid
Kristin J. Smith, Fellow, Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute, Washington University School of Law, St. Louis, Missouri, U.S. Humanitarian Intervention Policywl
Lesley Wexler, Professor of Law, University of Illinois College of Law, Champaign, U.N. Amendsdml
► Moderator: Mary L. Dudziak, Asa Griggs Candler Professor of Law, at Emory University School of Law, Atlanta, Georgia, and President of the Society for Historians of American Foreign Relations

E.14. Laws of War
carmichaelLeah Carmichael, Lecturer, Department of International Affairs, School of Public & International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens, The Bombing of Bakeries: The Role of Intentional Starvation in Armed Conflicts and the Lack of Accountability under International Lawcc
Chanel Chauvet, J.D. Candidate, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, Syria’s Responsibility under International Law to Protect Children from Warfare Attacks on Hospitals and Healthcareandra
Andra le Roux-Kemp, Assistant Professor, City University of Hong Kong, School of Law, Hong Kong, The Normative Genesis of Security as an Individual and Public Goodpayne
Cymie Payne, Associate Professor, Rutgers University, Camden, New Jersey, War, Peace, the Environment and International Lawsa
Ashika Singh, Forrester Fellow, Tulane University Law School, New Orleans, Louisiana, Identifying and Resolving Genuine Conflicts of International Law: A Case Study on Human Rights in Armed Conflict
smModerator: Milena Sterio, Professor of Law and Associate Dean for Academic Enrichment, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University, Ohio

F. 3:45-5:15 p.m.

F.15. Transitional Justice
brodMarissa R. Brodney, J.D. Candidate, Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Candidate for Master of Public Affairs degree, Princeton University coopWoodrow Wilson School, New Jersey, Implementing International Criminal Court-Ordered Collective Reparations: Unpacking Present Debates
Belinda Cooper, Senior Fellow, World Policy Institute, and Adjunct Professor at New York University Center for Global Affairs and Columbia University Institute for the Study of Human Rights, New York, Nuremberg’s Misunderstood Influence on Post-WWII Germany
Saskia Nauenberg, Ph.D. Candidate in Sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, Colombia in Transition: Negotiating Accountability for Human Rights Violationsod
Diane Orentlicher, Professor of International Law, American University Washington College of Law, tsWashington, D.C., International Justice Delayed: A Case Study
Shana Tabak, Visiting Assistant Professor of Law & Global Studies, Georgia State University School of Law, Atlanta, Revisiting Gender within Colombia’s Peace Process
Moderator: Amy J. Ross, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, University of Georgia, Athens

F.16. Laws and War and Counterterrorism
zaZohra Ahmed, Staff Attorney, Legal Aid Society, New York, New York, U.S. Deployment of the Consent Exception as a Justification for Drone Strikes in Pakistan
blLaurie R. Blank, Clinical Professor of Law and Director of the International Humanitarian Law Clinic, Emory University School of Law, Atlanta, Georgia, The Extent of Self-Defense against Terrorist Groups: For How Long and How Far?tk
Tetyana Krupiy, Postdoctoral Fellow, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada, Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems and Accountability: A “Transformer” Test for a Game-Changing Technology
marchIryna Marchuk, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, How Has the Conflict in Ukraine Challenged the Foundation of International Law?
trueC. Cora True-Frost, Associate Professor, Syracuse University College of Law, New York, Addressing the ecConditions Conducive to Terrorism: The Role of “Civil Society” in International Security
Moderator: Christie J. Edwards, Director, International Humanitarian Law, American Red Cross, Washington, D.C.

F.17. International Environmental and Space Law
ebElizabeth Burleson, Burleson Institute, Cos Cob, Connecticut, Climate-Energy Sinks and Sources: Multilateral Paris Agreement and Dynamic Federalism
ggGwendolyn Gordon, Assistant Professor of Legal Studies & Business Ethics, The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Environmental Personhood
ohHari M. Osofsky, Robins Kaplan Professor, Faculty Director of the Energy Transition Lab, and Director of the Joint Degree Program in Law, Science & Technology at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, The Paris soeteAgreement and Polycentric Climate Change Governance
Anemoon Soete, Ph.D. Candidate and Academic Teaching Assistant in European, Public and International Law, Ghent University, Belgium, Beyond Statehood: The steerHuman Security Paradigm
Cassandra Steer, Junior Wainwright Fellow, McGill University Faculty of Law, and Executive Director, Women in International Security Canada, Montréal, mjQuébec, Canada, What’s Wrong with the Colonization of Outer Space? A Feminist Analysis of Space Law
Moderator: Joseph S. Miller, Professor of Law and Director of the Georgia Law at Oxford Program, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens

F.18. International and Transnational Prosecution of Sexual Violence Crimes
maikeMaike Isaac, Associate Scholar at the International Center for Ethics, Justice, and Public Life, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts, The Prosecution of Sexual Violence against Men in Armed Conflict under International Criminal Law: dkravPast Omissions and Future Prospects for the Enhancement of the Visibility of Male Victimhood
Daniela Kravetz, International Criminal Lawyer, The Hague, the Netherlands, Challenging Impunity for mblSexual Violence during Chile’s Military Past
Mélissa Beaulieu Lussier, Avocate, Montréal, Québec, Canada, Prosecuting Sexual Violence against Child Soldiers and the Expressive Value of Sex Crime Prosecution: A Feminist Perspectivess
Susana SáCouto, Director, War Crimes Research Office, American University Washington College of Law, Washington, D.C., A Critique of Modes of Liability as Applied to Sexual Violence Crimes
gem Moderator: Maryann E. Gallagher, Lecturer, Department of International Affairs, School of Public & International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens

(Cross-posted from Exchange of Notes)